Wotsogola wosewera mpira

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Wowukira akuyesera kuti agole chigoli.

Osewera kutsogolo ndi omwe amasewera timu yampikisano yomwe imasewera pafupi ndi cholinga cha timu yomwe ikutsutsana, motero ndi omwe ali ndi udindo wopeza zigoli.

Udindo wawo wapamwamba komanso maudindo ochepa otetezera amatanthauza kuti kutsogolo kumapereka zigoli zambiri m'malo mwa timu yawo kuposa osewera ena.

Magulu amakono amakono amaphatikizira m'modzi mpaka atatu mtsogolo; Mwachitsanzo, wamba 4-2-3-1 mapangidwe amaphatikizapo kutsogolo. Mapangidwe osagwirizana atha kukhala opitilira atatu patsogolo kapena palibe.

Pakatikati kutsogolo[Sinthani | sintha gwero]

Udindo wachikhalidwe chopita patsogolo ndikulemba zigoli zambiri m'malo mwa timu. Ngati ndi osewera ataliatali komanso olimba, otha kutsogolera bwino, wosewerayo atha kugwiritsidwanso ntchito kufika kumapeto kwa mitanda, kupambana mipira yayitali, kapena kulandira mipata ndikusungabe mpira ndi nsana wawo kuti azikwaniritsa osewera nawo, kuti athe kupereka kuzama kwa gulu lawo kapena kuthandiza osewera nawo mphambu powapatsa chiphaso ('kudzera mu mpira' m'bokosi), kusiyanasiyana kotereku kumafuna kuthamanga mwachangu komanso kuyenda bwino, kuwonjezera pakumaliza kumaliza. Otsatira ambiri amakono amagwiranso ntchito pamaso pa omenyera achiwiri kapena oyimilira apakati ndipo amasewera kwambiri kunja kwa bokosilo. Udindo wapakati-wotsogola nthawi zina umasinthana ndi wosewera pakati kapena wowukira wachiwiri, komabe, makamaka m'mapangidwe a 4-3-1 kapena 4-1-1-2-2. Mawu oti center-forward atengedwa kuchokera kumasewera omwe adasewera kale, monga 2-3-5, momwe munali osewera asanu patsogolo: awiri akutsogolo kutsogolo, awiri mkati kutsogolo, ndi m'modzi wapakati. Mawu oti "chandamale patsogolo" amagwiritsidwa ntchito mosinthana ndi omwe amakhala pakati, koma nthawi zambiri amatanthauzira mtundu wina womenya, yemwe nthawi zambiri amakhala wosewera wamtali komanso wamphamvu, wodziwa kutsogolera mpira; ntchito yawo yayikulu ndikupambana mipira yayitali mlengalenga, kukweza mpira, ndikupanga mwayi kwa mamembala ena a timuyi, kuwonjezera pakupeza zigoli zambiri iwowo. Komabe, mawu awiriwa sakufanana kwenikweni, pomwe wopita patsogolo wapanga gawo lina lapadera, pomwe kufotokozera kwapakatikati ndikokulirapo, kuphatikiza mitundu yambiri yakutsogolo.

Manambala atayambitsidwa kumapeto komaliza kwa 1933 English FA Cup, m'modzi mwa otsogola tsiku lomwelo adavala nambala 9 - Dixie Dean wa Everton, wosewera wamphamvu, wamphamvu yemwe adalemba mbiri yazolinga zambiri zomwe zidakwaniritsidwa mu Chingerezi mpira mu nyengo ya 1927-28. Chiwerengerocho chimakhala chofanana ndi malo opita kutsogolo (amangovala tsiku lomwelo chifukwa gulu lina lidalembedwa 1-1 pomwe lina lidali la 12 mpaka 22).

Malo owukira[Sinthani | sintha gwero]

Udindo wa womenyerawo ndi wosiyana kwambiri ndi wochita masewera olimbitsa thupi, ngakhale mawu oti pakati-kutsogolo ndi womenyera amagwiritsidwa ntchito mosinthana nthawi zina, popeza onse amasewera pamunda kuposa osewera ena, pomwe ndi aatali, olemera komanso akatswiri, monga Zlatan Ibrahimović, khalani ndi mikhalidwe yoyenera maudindo onse awiriwa. Monga wolowera pakati, udindo wachikhalidwe cha womenyera ndikupanga zigoli; Omenyera masewera amadziwika kuti amatha kuchotsa oteteza ndikuthamangira mumlengalenga kudzera mwakhungu lakumenyanako ndikulandila mpira pamalo abwino, monga Ronaldo. Amakhala othamanga mwachangu omwe amatha kuwongolera mpira komanso kutha kuyenda. Omenyera ena achangu ngati Michael Owen ndi Sergio Agüero ali ndi mwayi wopitilira oteteza chifukwa chothamanga kwakanthawi.

Wowukira wabwino amayenera kuwombera molimba mtima ndi phazi lililonse, kukhala ndi mphamvu yayikulu komanso kulondola, ndipo amatha kulumikizana ndi osewera nawo ndikudutsa mpirawo atapanikizika pakachitika zovuta. Pomwe omenya ambiri amavala malaya a 9, monga Alan Shearer, wosewera wakunja, udindo, pang'ono, umalumikizananso ndi nambala 10, yomwe imavalidwa pafupipafupi ndi ena otsogola monga Pelé , ndipo nthawi zina ndi nambala 7 ndi 11, zomwe nthawi zambiri zimalumikizidwa ndi mapiko.

Wowukira wachiwiri[Sinthani | sintha gwero]

Kupita patsogolo kwakutsogolo kumakhala ndi mbiri yayitali pamasewera, koma matanthauzidwe ofotokozera momwe amasewera akusiyanasiyana pazaka zambiri. Poyamba osewera otere amatchedwa mkati kutsogolo, opanga kapena ozama kwambiri pakati ("sub forward"). Posachedwapa, pali mitundu ina iwiri ya wosewera wakaleyu yomwe yachitika: wachiwiri, kapena mthunzi, kapena kuthandizira, kapena womenyera wothandizira ndipo, momwe zilili zosiyana ndi zawo, nambala 10; udindo wakale akuwonetsedwa ndi osewera monga Dennis Bergkamp (yemwe amasewera kumbuyo kwa wosewera Thierry Henry ku Arsenal), Alessandro Del Piero ku Juventus, Youri Djorkaeff ku Inter Milan, kapena Teddy Sheringham ku Tottenham Hotspur. Osewera ena opanga omwe amasewera kumbuyo, monga Diego Maradona, Ronaldinho ndi Zinedine Zidane nthawi zambiri amatchedwa "nambala 10", ndipo nthawi zambiri amakhala ngati osewera pakati kapena wosewera wapamwamba.

Wowombera wachiwiri amafotokozedwa momasuka komanso nthawi zambiri samamveka bwino za wosewera yemwe amakhala ndiudindo, kwinakwake pakati pa womenyera kunja, kaya ndi "munthu wofuna" kapena "wopha nyama" mopitilira muyeso, ndi nambala 10 kapena osewera wapakati, pomwe mwina akuwonetsa zina mwazonsezi. M'malo mwake, mawu opangidwa ndi wosewera waku France wapamwamba Michel Platini, "zisanu ndi zinayi ndi theka", yemwe adalongosola momwe wosewera m'malo mwake adasewera nambala 10 ku Juventus, wosewera waku Italiya Roberto Baggio, wakhala kuyesa kukhala mulingo wofotokozera malowo. Zachidziwikire, nambala 10 itha kusinthana ngati womenyera wachiwiri bola atakhala kuti ndiwokwaniritsa zolinga zambiri; Kupanda kutero, mafoni amtsogolo omwe ali ndi luso laukadaulo (maluso oyendetsa ndi kuwongolera mpira), kuthamangitsa, masomphenya, kudutsa, ndi kulumikizana, omwe amatha kulemba ndi kupanga mwayi wopita patsogolo, ndioyenera. Ngakhale amapatsidwa "layisensi yoti aziyenda," ndipo amathamangira kutsogolo, kapena kubwerera mmbuyo kuti atenge mpira m'malo ozama, kuwapatsa nthawi ndi malo okhala, omenyera achiwiri kapena othandizira samakonda omwe akutenga nawo mbali poyambitsa ziwopsezo monga nambala 10, komanso samabweretsa osewera ena ambiri, popeza sagawana nawo udindo, akugwira ntchito yothandizira ngati othandizira othandizira. Ku Italy, ntchitoyi imadziwika kuti "rifinitore", "mezzapunta", kapena "seconda punta", pomwe ku Brazil, imadziwika kuti "segundo atacante" kapena "ponta-de-lança".

Mkati patsogolo[Sinthani | sintha gwero]

Udindo wakunja unkagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri kumapeto kwa zaka za zana la khumi ndi chisanu ndi chinayi ndi zoyambirira za zaka makumi awiri. Osewera mkatikati amathandizira wapakatikati, akuthamanga ndikupanga malo achitetezo achitetezo, ndipo, pomwe masewera odutsa amayamba, kumuthandiza ndi ma pass. Udindowu ndi wofanana kwambiri ndi "dzenje" kapena wosewera wachiwiri pamasewera amakono, ngakhale pano, panali osewera awiri otere, omwe amadziwika kuti mkati kumanja ndi mkati kumanzere.

Kumayambiriro kwa 2-3-5 mawonekedwe amkati-kutsogolo amapita pakati-kutsogolo mbali zonse ziwiri. Pakukula kwa "WM", oyendetsa mkati adabwezeretsedwanso kuti akhale osewera wapakati, akupereka mipira kutsogolo-kutsogolo ndipo awiriwo akuukira akunja kutsogolo - omwe amadziwika kuti akunja kumanja ndi kunja kumanzere. M'miyambi ya mpira waku Italiya, udindo wamkati wamkati poyamba unkadziwika kuti mezzala (kwenikweni "wopikirira theka," osasokonezedwa ndi mapiko theka); Komabe, kugwiritsiridwa ntchito kwa liwu lofotokozerali kutsogolo sikunathenso kugwira ntchito, chifukwa cholembera cha mezzala chidagwiritsidwanso ntchito kufotokoza udindo wa osewera wapakati pakati pa mpira waku Italiya, pomwe wosewera mkati adatchedwa "interno" ( "mkati," m'Chitaliyana) mu mpira waku Italiya zaka zotsatira.

M'masewera amakono, oyendetsa mkati adakankhidwira kutsogolo kuti akhale owukira kapena akunja kapena abodza-9s, kapena kutambasula kuti akhale opambana (mu kapangidwe ka 3-4-3), kapena asinthidwa malo ozama omwe akuyenera kubwerera kuti alumikizane ndi osewera wapakati, kwinaku akuthandiza wosewera wina yemwe akusewera nawo kutsogolo (mu kapangidwe ka 4–4-2). Magulu ambiri amagwiritsabe ntchito m'modzi mwa omwe amawagunda pantchito yomaliza iyi kuti athandizire womenyayo, mofanana kwambiri ndi wakutsogolo.Kumayambiriro kwa 2-3-5 mawonekedwe amkati-kutsogolo amapita pakati-kutsogolo mbali zonse ziwiri. Pakukula kwa "WM", oyendetsa mkati adabwezeretsedwanso kuti akhale osewera wapakati, akupereka mipira kutsogolo-kutsogolo ndipo awiriwo akuukira akunja kutsogolo - omwe amadziwika kuti akunja kumanja ndi kunja kumanzere. M'miyambi ya mpira waku Italiya, udindo wamkati wamkati poyamba unkadziwika kuti mezzala (kwenikweni "wopikirira theka," osasokonezedwa ndi mapiko theka); Komabe, kugwiritsiridwa ntchito kwa liwu lofotokozerali kutsogolo sikunathenso kugwira ntchito, chifukwa cholembera cha mezzala chidagwiritsidwanso ntchito kufotokoza udindo wa osewera wapakati pakati pa mpira waku Italiya, pomwe wosewera mkati adatchedwa "interno" ( "mkati," m'Chitaliyana) mu mpira waku Italiya zaka zotsatira.

M'masewera amakono, oyendetsa mkati adakankhidwira kutsogolo kuti akhale owukira kapena akunja kapena abodza-9s, kapena kutambasula kuti akhale opambana (mu kapangidwe ka 3-4-3), kapena asinthidwa malo ozama omwe akuyenera kubwerera kuti alumikizane ndi osewera wapakati, kwinaku akuthandiza wosewera wina yemwe akusewera nawo kutsogolo (mu kapangidwe ka 4–4-2). Magulu ambiri amagwiritsabe ntchito m'modzi mwa omwe amawagunda pantchito yomaliza iyi kuti athandizire womenyayo, mofanana kwambiri ndi wakutsogolo.

Menyani magulu ndi kuphatikiza[Sinthani | sintha gwero]

Gulu lonyanyala ndi achifwamba awiri kapena kupitilira apo omwe amagwira ntchito limodzi. Mbiri ya mpira yadzaza ndi kuphatikiza kothandiza kambiri. Magulu amuna atatu nthawi zambiri amagwira ntchito mu "ma triangles", ndikupatsa mwayi wambiri wosankha. Ma phukusi amuna anayi amakulitsa zosankha zambiri. Omenyera amayeneranso kukhala osinthika, ndikutha kusintha maudindo mwakanthawi, pakati pa woyamba (wolowera kwambiri), wachiwiri (woyendetsa mozama) ndi wachitatu (kuthandizira ndikukula, mwachitsanzo mapiko) maudindo owukira.

Chitsanzo china chinali Mpira Wathunthu womwe udaseweredwa ndi timu yaku Dutch mzaka zam'ma 1970, pomwe kuthekera kwa osewera awo, makamaka a Johan Cruyff, kusinthana maudindo kunalola njira yolowerera yomwe magulu otsutsa adapeza kuti ndi ovuta kuwazindikira.

Pamasewera osewera awiri, zimakhala zachilendo kuti owonera awiri omwe amathandizana kuphatikizana; Mwachitsanzo, woyang'anira wakale waku Italy a Cesare Maldini nthawi zambiri amagwiritsa ntchito wosewera wamkulu, wakuthupi, komanso wochulukirapo ngati wosewera wazikhalidwe - monga Christian Vieri - limodzi ndi wosewera wocheperako, wachangu, waluso komanso waluso ngati womenya wachiwiri - monga Roberto Baggio kapena Alessandro Del Piero.

Alex Morgan (Na. 13) ndi Abby Wambach (Na. 14); Morgan ndi Wambach adakwaniritsa zolinga 55 mu 2012 - zofanana zaka 21 zakubadwa zomwe zidakhazikitsidwa mu 1991 ndi Michelle Akers (zolinga 39) ndi Carin Jennings (16) ngati zigoli zomwe zigoli zonse zidalemba mu mbiri ya US WNT.

Chitsanzo china chofananira chamgwirizano wapadziko lonse lapansi ndi cha Alex Morgan ndi Abby Wambach ndi timu yadziko la United States, omwe adakwaniritsa zolinga 55 mu 2012, zomwe zikufanana ndi zaka 21 zomwe zidakhazikitsidwa mu 1991 ndi a Michelle Akers ( Zolinga 39) ndi Carin Jennings (zolinga 16) ngati zolinga zopambana kwambiri zomwe adachita ndi awiriwa mu mbiri ya US WNT.

Chimodzi mwazinthu zopitilira patsogolo kwambiri m'mbiri yamasewera anali atatu akutsogolo a Barcelona, ​​Lionel Messi, Luis Suárez ndi Neymar, otchedwa MSN. Pafupifupi amapeza chigoli mphindi 45 zilizonse - zigoli ziwiri pamasewera kuyambira atatu kupita kutsogolo. Atsogoleri atatuwa adalemba zigoli 131 mu nyengo imodzi ku Barcelona mu 2015-16. Mu 2017, Kylian Mbappé, Neymar, ndi Edinson Cavani adalemba zigoli zingapo za Paris Saint-Germain mgulu la Champions League. Chaka chotsatira, gulu lankhondo laku Liverpool la Roberto Firmino, Mohamed Salah, Sadio Mané ndi Philippe Coutinho, otchedwa "Fab Wachinayi" (ponena za The Beatles), adathandizira kuwononga zigoli 47 pa nyengo imodzi ya Champions League.