2022 Russia ikuukira Ukraine

From Wikipedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Njira zotheka zomwe akuti Russia idaukira Ukraine

Pa February 24, 2022, dziko la Russia linayambitsa nkhondo yaikulu ku Ukraine, yomwe inali imodzi mwa oyandikana nawo kumwera chakumadzulo, zomwe zikusonyeza kuti nkhondoyo inayamba mu 2014. kuyambira Nkhondo Yadziko II.[1][2][3]

Kutsatira Kusintha kwa Ulemu ku Ukraine mu 2014, dziko la Russia lidalanda dziko la Crimea, pomwe magulu odzipatula omwe amathandizidwa ndi Russia adalanda mbali ina ya Donbas kum'mawa kwa Ukraine, zomwe zidayambitsa nkhondo yazaka zisanu ndi zitatu m'derali. Kuyambira koyambirira kwa 2021, panali gulu lankhondo laku Russia kuzungulira malire a Russia ndi Ukraine. A US ndi ena adadzudzula dziko la Russia kuti likukonzekera kuukira ku Ukraine, koma akuluakulu aku Russia adakana mobwerezabwereza mpaka 20 February 2022. Panthawi yamavuto, pulezidenti wa Russia Vladimir Putin adawonetsa kuwonjezereka kwa NATO pambuyo pa 1997 ngati chiwopsezo cha chitetezo cha dziko lake. zomwe NATO idakana, ndikulamula kuti Ukraine iletsedwe kulowa nawo NATO. Putin adawonetsa malingaliro aku Russia osazindikira, ndikukayikira ufulu waku Ukraine wokhala ndi boma. Kuukira kusanachitike, poyesa kupereka casus belli, Putin adadzudzula dziko la Ukraine chifukwa chopha anthu olankhula Chirasha ku Ukraine; milandu imeneyi inafotokozedwa mofala ngati yopanda pake.[4][5]

Pa February 21, 2022, dziko la Russia linavomereza mwalamulo Donetsk People's Republic ndi Luhansk People's Republics, mayiko awiri odzitcha okha omwe akulamulidwa ndi asilikali odzipatula ogwirizana ndi Russia ku Donbas. Tsiku lotsatira, Bungwe la Federation of Russia linavomereza mogwirizana kuti Putin agwiritse ntchito asilikali kunja, ndipo asilikali a Russia anatumizidwa poyera m'madera onse awiri. Pa 24 February, pafupifupi 05:00 EET (UTC + 2), Putin adalengeza "ntchito yapadera yankhondo", yomwe malinga ndi iye inali ndi cholinga cha "demilitarization" ndi "denazification" ya Ukraine. Patangopita mphindi zochepa, zida zoponya zidayamba kugunda kudera lonse la Ukraine, kuphatikiza likulu la Kyiv. Bungwe la State Border Guard Service la Ukraine linanena kuti malire ake ndi Russia ndi Belarus adawukiridwa. Patatha maola awiri, asilikali a ku Russia analowa m’dzikoli. Purezidenti wa Ukraine Volodymyr Zelenskyy adayankha pokhazikitsa malamulo ankhondo, kuthetsa ubale waukazembe ndi Russia, ndikulamula kuti anthu onse azilimbikitsana mdziko lonse.[6][7]

Kuukiraku kudadzudzulidwa padziko lonse lapansi, kuphatikiza zilango zatsopano zomwe zidaperekedwa ku Russia, zomwe zidayambitsa mavuto azachuma. Ziwonetsero zapadziko lonse lapansi zotsutsana ndi kuwukiraku zidachitika, pomwe ziwonetsero zaku Russia zidamangidwa ndi anthu ambiri. Nkhondo isanachitike komanso panthawi yomwe adaukira, mayiko osiyanasiyana adapereka thandizo lakunja ku Ukraine, kuphatikiza zida ndi zida zina. Poyankha, a Putin adayika zida zanyukiliya zaku Russia kukhala tcheru.[8]

Malinga ndi a UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), anthu opitilira miliyoni miliyoni a ku Ukraine adathawa mdzikolo sabata yoyamba yachiwembuchi, zomwe zidayambitsa vuto la othawa kwawo ku Europe konse.[9]

Mbiri[Sinthani | sintha gwero]

Chikhalidwe cha post-Soviet[Sinthani | sintha gwero]

Pambuyo pa kutha kwa Soviet Union mu 1991, Ukraine ndi Russia anapitirizabe kugwirizana. Mu 1994, Ukraine idavomereza kusiya zida zake zanyukiliya ndipo idasaina Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances potengera kuti Russia, United Kingdom, ndi United States zipereka chitsimikiziro motsutsana ndi ziwopsezo kapena kugwiritsa ntchito mphamvu motsutsana ndi kukhulupirika kapena kudziyimira pawokha pazandale. Ukraine. Zaka zisanu pambuyo pake, dziko la Russia linali m'modzi mwa omwe adasaina Charter for European Security, pomwe "idatsimikiziranso za ufulu wadziko lililonse lomwe likuchita nawo ufulu wosankha kapena kusintha makonzedwe ake achitetezo, kuphatikiza mapangano a mgwirizano, pomwe akusintha". Mu 2008, pulezidenti wa Russia Vladimir Putin anatsutsa zoti dziko la Ukraine lingalowe m'gulu la NATO[10] Mu 2009, katswiri wa ku Romania, Iulian Chifu ndi olemba anzake, adanena kuti ponena za dziko la Ukraine, dziko la Russia latsatira Chiphunzitso cha Brezhnev, chomwe chimapereka ufulu wodzilamulira. ya Ukraine singakhale yokulirapo kuposa ya mayiko omwe ali mamembala a Warsaw Pact kugwa kwa gawo la Soviet Union kumapeto kwa zaka za m'ma 1980 ndi koyambirira kwa 1990s.[11]

Kusintha kwa Chiyukireniya ndi nkhondo[Sinthani | sintha gwero]

Pambuyo pa masabata angapo a zionetsero monga gawo la gulu la Euromaidan (2013-2014), pulezidenti wovomerezeka wa Russia Viktor Yanukovych ndi atsogoleri a otsutsa a nyumba yamalamulo ku Ukraine pa 21 February 2014 adasaina mgwirizano wothetsa chisankho chomwe chinafuna kuti chisankho chichitike. Tsiku lotsatira, Yanukovych anathawa ku Kyiv asanavotere mlandu womuchotsera udindo wake monga purezidenti. Atsogoleri a zigawo zakum'mawa kwa Ukraine zomwe amalankhula Chirasha adalengeza kuti akupitilizabe kukhulupirika kwa Yanukovych, zomwe zidayambitsa zipolowe za 2014 zotsutsana ndi Russia ku Ukraine. Zipolowezo zidatsatiridwa ndi kulandidwa kwa Crimea ndi Russia mu Marichi 2014 ndi Nkhondo ku Donbas, yomwe idayamba mu Epulo 2014 ndikukhazikitsidwa kwamayiko otsogozedwa ndi Russia a Donetsk ndi Luhansk People's Republics.

Pa Seputembara 14, 2020, Purezidenti waku Ukraine Volodymyr Zelenskyy adavomereza njira yatsopano yachitetezo cha dziko la Ukraine, "yomwe imapereka chitukuko cha mgwirizano wapadera ndi NATO ndi cholinga chokhala membala wa NATO." Pa 24 March 2021, Zelenskyy adasaina Lamulo la 117/2021 lovomereza "ndondomeko yochotsa ntchito ndikubwezeretsanso gawo lomwe linalandidwa kwakanthawi la Autonomous Republic of Crimea ndi mzinda wa Sevastopol."

Mu Julayi 2021, a Putin adafalitsa nkhani yotchedwa On the Historical Unity of Russia and Ukrainians, pomwe adatsimikiziranso malingaliro ake kuti aku Russia ndi aku Ukraine anali "anthu amodzi". Wolemba mbiri waku America Timothy Snyder adafotokoza malingaliro a Putin ngati imperialism. Mtolankhani waku Britain Edward Lucas adafotokoza kuti ndikusinthanso mbiri yakale. Owonera ena anena utsogoleri wa Russia kukhala ndi malingaliro olakwika a Ukraine yamakono ndi mbiri yake.

Russia yati kutha kulowa m'malo a Ukraine ku NATO ndi kukulitsa kwa NATO kuwopseza chitetezo cha dziko. Momwemonso, Ukraine ndi mayiko ena aku Europe oyandikana ndi Russia adadzudzula a Putin kuti amayesa kusamvetsetsana ndi Russia komanso kutsatira mfundo zankhondo.[12]

Invasion[Sinthani | sintha gwero]

Mapu aku Ukraine kuyambira pa February 24, 2022

Pa 24 February, posakhalitsa 06:00 Moscow Time (UTC + 3), Putin adalengeza kuti adasankha kukhazikitsa "ntchito yapadera yankhondo" kummawa kwa Ukraine. M'mawu ake, a Putin adati palibe malingaliro oti atenge gawo la Ukraine komanso kuti amathandizira ufulu wa anthu aku Ukraine wodzilamulira. Anati cholinga cha "ntchito" chinali "kuteteza anthu" m'chigawo chomwe anthu ambiri amalankhula Chirasha cha Donbas omwe, malinga ndi Putin, "kwa zaka zisanu ndi zitatu tsopano, akhala akukumana ndi manyazi komanso kuphana kwa mafuko opangidwa ndi boma la Kyiv". A Putin adanenanso kuti Russia idafuna "kuchotsedwa ndi kunyozedwa" ku Ukraine. Patangopita mphindi zochepa kuchokera pomwe Putin adalengeza, kuphulika kunachitika ku Kyiv, Kharkiv, Odessa, ndi Donbas.

Nthawi yomweyo kuukirako, Zelenskyy adalengeza kukhazikitsidwa kwa malamulo ankhondo ku Ukraine; usiku womwewo, adalamula kuti amuna onse azaka zapakati pa 18 ndi 60 apite patsogolo. Asilikali a ku Russia adalowa ku Ukraine kuchokera kumbali zinayi zazikulu: kumpoto kuchokera ku Belarus, akupita ku Kyiv; kumpoto chakum'mawa kuchokera ku Russia, kulowera ku Kharkiv; kum’maŵa kuchokera ku Donetsk People’s Republic (DPR) ndi Luhansk People’s Republic (LPR); ndi kum'mwera kuchokera ku dera lolandidwa la Crimea.

Kutsogolo kwa kumpoto[Sinthani | sintha gwero]

Ntchito yoti atenge mzinda wa Kyiv inaphatikizapo ntchito yaikulu yolowera kum'mwera kuchokera ku Belarus m'mphepete mwa mtsinje wa Dnipro, ndipo zikuoneka kuti ankayesa kuzungulira Kyiv kuchokera kumadzulo. Imathandizidwa ndi nkhwangwa ziwiri zosiyana zakuukira ku Russia m'mphepete mwakum'mawa kwa Dnipro: kumadzulo ku Chernihiv ndi kum'mawa ku Sumy. Nkhwangwa zakum'mawa zakuukira zikuwoneka kuti zizungulira Kyiv kuchokera kumpoto chakum'mawa ndi kum'mawa.

Pa Nkhondo ya Chernobyl, anthu a ku Russia adagonjetsa mizinda ya Chernobyl ndi Pripyat; Kupita kwawo kunalepheretsedwa ndi kukana kwamphamvu kwa asitikali aku Ukraine. Pambuyo pa kupambana kwawo ku Chernobyl, Russia ikupita patsogolo pa Nkhondo ya Ivankiv, dera lakumpoto la Kyiv. Russian Airborne Forces anayesa kulanda ndege ziwiri kuzungulira Kyiv m'masiku oyambirira akumenyana, poyamba pa Antonov Airport ndiyeno, pa 26 February, pa Nkhondo ya Vasylkiv pa Vasylkiv Air Base kumwera kwa Kyiv. Masiku oyambirirawa adawoneka ngati kuyesa kwa Russia kuti agwire Kyiv mofulumira ndi Spetsnaz adalowa mumzindawu mothandizidwa ndi machitidwe a ndege komanso kutsogola kwachangu kuchokera kumpoto, koma sizinaphule kanthu.

Pofika kumayambiriro kwa Marichi, kupita patsogolo kwa Russia kumadzulo kwa Dnipro kunali kochepa, kuvutitsidwa ndi chitetezo cha Ukraine. Gulu lalikulu lankhondo laku Russia, lomwe linali lalitali makilomita 64, "lidapita patsogolo pang'ono" ku Kyiv. Kutsogola m'mbali mwa Chernihiv kudayima pomwe mzindawo ukuzingidwa. Russia idapita patsogolo kwambiri panjira ya Sumy kutsogolo Kum'mawa: Konotop idagwa pomwe Nkhondo ya Sumy inali kupitilira. Asilikali aku Russia, akuyenda m'misewu ikuluikulu kuchokera ku Sumy kudutsa malo athyathyathya, otseguka omwe anali malo osatetezeka otetezeka, adafika ku Brovary, dera lakum'mawa kwa Kyiv.

Apartment block in Kyiv (Valeriy Lobanovskyi Avenue) struck by a missile, 26 February

Kuchokera Kum'mawa kutsogolo[Sinthani | sintha gwero]

Kumpoto chakum’mawa, asilikali a ku Russia anayesa kulanda Kharkiv ndi Sumy, omwe ali pamtunda wa makilomita osakwana 35 (22 mi) kuchokera kumalire a Russia. Malinga ndi ankhondo aku Ukraine, Nkhondo ya Konotop idatayika pa 25 February. Mu Nkhondo ya Kharkiv, akasinja Russian anakumana ndi kukana kwambiri. Pa 28 February, mzindawu udayang'aniridwa ndi zida zosiyanasiyana zomwe zidapha anthu angapo. Nkhondoyo inafotokozedwa ndi mlangizi wa pulezidenti wa ku Ukraine monga "Stalingrad m'zaka za zana la 21". Mu Nkhondo ya Sumy, ngakhale kukana pang'ono koyambirira, asitikali aku Ukraine ndi asitikali ankhondo adayamba kulimbana ndi asitikali aku Russia mkati mwa mzindawo, zomwe zidayambitsa nkhondo zazikulu zamatawuni.

M'mawa pa February 25, Asilikali ankhondo aku Russia adakwera kuchokera kudera la DPR chakum'mawa kupita ku Mariupol ndipo adakumana ndi asitikali aku Ukraine pafupi ndi mudzi wa Pavlopil, komwe adagonjetsedwa. Asitikali ankhondo aku Russia akuti adayamba kuwukira panyanja ya Azov pamtunda wa makilomita 70 (43 mi) kumadzulo kwa Mariupol madzulo a 25 February. Msilikali wina wachitetezo ku US adanenanso kuti aku Russia atha kutumiza masauzande ankhondo aku Russia Naval Infantry kuchokera kumphepete mwa nyanjayi. Pa 1 Marichi, Denis Pushilin, wamkulu wa DPR, adalengeza kuti magulu ankhondo a DPR azungulira pafupifupi mzinda wapafupi wa Volnovakha ndipo posakhalitsa achita zomwezo ku Mariupol.

Kuchokera kutsogolo Kumwera[Sinthani | sintha gwero]

Pa February 24, asilikali a ku Russia adagonjetsa North Crimea Canal, kulola kuti Crimea ipeze madzi a peninsula, yomwe idachotsedwa kuyambira 2014. kutsogolo ndi zigawo za Donbas separatist. Pa 1 Marichi, asitikali aku Russia adayamba kukonzekera kuyambiranso kuukira kwawo ku Melitopol ndi mizinda ina, kuyambira Nkhondo ya Melitopol. Ivan Fedorov, meya wa Melitopol, pambuyo pake ananena kuti anthu a ku Russia analanda mzindawo. Pa Marichi 2, nkhondo ya Kherson idapambana ndi asitikali aku Russia. Asilikali aku Russia ndiye adapita ku Mykolaiv, yomwe ili pakati pa Kherson ndi Odesa. Pa Marichi 4, omenyera ufulu waku Ukraine adabweza kuwukira kwa mzindawu ndikugwiranso Kulbakino Air Base.

Asilikali ena aku Russia adapita kumpoto kuchokera ku Crimea pa 26 February, ndi Gulu Lankhondo la 22 la Russia likuyandikira ku Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant. Pa 3 Marichi, adayamba kuzungulira Enerhodar poyesa kuwongolera malo opangira mphamvu zanyukiliya. Moto unayambika panthawi yomenyana ndi mfuti. Bungwe la International Atomic Energy Agency linanena kuti zida zofunika sizinawonongeke. Pofika pa Marichi 4, Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant idagwidwa ndi asitikali aku Russia, koma pomwe moto udanenedwa, panalibe kutayikira kwa radiation.

Zokambirana zam'mlengalenga ndi zapamadzi[Sinthani | sintha gwero]

Pa 24 February, State Border Guard Service ya Ukraine idalengeza za 18:00 nthawi yakomweko kuti kuwukira kwa Snake Island ndi zombo zankhondo zaku Russia zayamba. Sitima yapamadzi ya Moskva ndi bwato loyang'anira Vasily Bykov adaphulitsa chilumbachi ndi mfuti zawo. Pamene sitima yankhondo ya ku Russia inadzizindikiritsa yokha ndi kulangiza asilikali a ku Ukraine omwe anali pachilumbachi kuti adzipereke, yankho lawo linali "Sitima yankhondo ya ku Russia, pita kukamenyana!" Kuphulika kwa mabomba kutatha, gulu la asilikali a ku Russia linatera ndikugonjetsa Snake Island.

Pa February 25, asilikali a ku Ukraine anaukira bwalo la ndege la Millerovo ndi mizinga ya OTR-21 Tochka, kuwononga ndege za Russian Air Force, ndikuyatsa moto, malinga ndi akuluakulu ena a ku Ukraine. Mu Zhytomyr Airport kuukira 27 February, zinanenedwa kuti Russia ntchito 9K720 Iskander mizinga machitidwe ili mu Belarus, kuukira wamba Zhytomyr Airport.

Pa 4 Marichi, Mtumiki wa Chitetezo ku Ukraine adatsimikizira kuti mbendera ya Ukraine Navy Hetman Sahaidachny idaphwanyidwa ku Mykolaiv kuti aletse kugwidwa ndi asitikali aku Russia. Tsiku lapitalo, chithunzi chidatuluka chowonetsa Hetman Sahaidachny atamira pang'ono padoko.

Thandizo lankhondo lakunja ku Ukraine[Sinthani | sintha gwero]

Pansi pa utsogoleri wa Viktor Yanukovych, asilikali a ku Ukraine anali atawonongeka; idafowokanso kutsatira kugwa kwa Yanukovych komanso kutsata kwake atsogoleri owoneka akumadzulo. Pambuyo pake, mayiko angapo a Kumadzulo (Australia, Canada, mayiko a Baltic, France, Germany, Poland, Turkey, UK, ndi US) ndi mabungwe (EU ndi NATO) anayamba kupereka thandizo lankhondo kuti amangenso asilikali ake. Kuyambira 2019, Asitikali Ankhondo aku Ukraine akhala akugula ku Turkey magalimoto omenyera nkhondo osayendetsedwa ndi anthu ngati Bayraktar TB2, yomwe idagwiritsidwa ntchito koyamba mu Okutobala 2021 kulunjika komwe kuli zida zankhondo zaku Russia ku Donbas.

Pamene dziko la Russia linkayamba kupanga zida zake ndi asilikali ake kumalire a Ukraine, mayiko omwe ali m'bungwe la NATO anawonjezera kuchuluka kwa zida. Purezidenti wa US a Joe Biden adagwiritsa ntchito Authorities Drawdown Authorities mu Ogasiti ndi Disembala 2021 kuti apereke $260 miliyoni zothandizira. Izi zinaphatikizapo kuperekedwa kwa FGM-148 Javelins ndi zida zina zolimbana ndi zida, zida zazing'ono, zida zamitundu yosiyanasiyana, ndi zida zina.[13][14][15]

Kutsatira kuukiraku, a US adalumbira kuti sadzatumiza asitikali aku Ukraine kuti ateteze dzikolo, ngakhale US ndi mayiko ena adayamba kulonjeza kutumiza zida kwa anthu aku Ukraine. Belgium, Czechia, Estonia, France, Greece, Netherlands, Portugal, ndi UK adalengeza kuti atumiza zinthu zothandizira ndi kuteteza asilikali ndi boma la Ukraine. Pa February 24, Poland idapereka zida zankhondo ku Ukraine, kuphatikiza zida 100, zida zosiyanasiyana, ndi zipewa zopitilira 40,000. Ngakhale ena mwa mamembala a 30 a NATO adavomera kutumiza zida, NATO monga bungwe silinatero.

Mu Januware 2022, Germany idaletsa kutumiza zida ku Ukraine ndikuletsa Estonia, kudzera muulamuliro wotumiza zida zopangidwa ku Germany, kutumiza omwe kale anali a East Germany D-30 howwitzers ku Ukraine. Germany idalengeza kuti ikutumiza zipewa za 5,000 ndi chipatala chakumunda ku Ukraine, pomwe meya wa Kyiv Vitali Klitschko adayankha monyoza kuti: "Adzatumiza chiyani pambuyo pake? Mitsamiro?" Pa 26 February, posintha momwe analili m'mbuyomu, Germany idavomereza pempho la Netherlands kuti litumize mabomba 400 othamangitsidwa ndi rocket ku Ukraine, komanso mizinga 500 ya Stinger ndi zida zolimbana ndi akasinja 1,000 kuchokera pazogulitsa zake.

Pa 27 February, EU idavomereza kugula zida ku Ukraine pamodzi. Mkulu wa malamulo akunja ku EU a Josep Borrell adati igula € 450 miliyoni (US $ 502 miliyoni) ngati chithandizo chakupha komanso ma euro 50 miliyoni ($ 56 miliyoni) pazinthu zosapha. Borrell adati nduna za chitetezo ku EU zikufunikabe kudziwa tsatanetsatane wa momwe angagulire zidazo ndikuzitumiza ku Ukraine, koma Poland idavomereza kuti ikhale ngati malo ogawa. Borrell adanenanso kuti akufuna kupereka Ukraine ndege zomenyera nkhondo zomwe azitha kuyendetsa kale. Poland, Bulgaria, ndi Slovakia anali ndi MiG-29s ndi Slovakia analinso ndi ma Su-25, omwe anali ndege zankhondo zomwe Ukraine idawuluka kale ndipo zitha kusamutsidwa popanda maphunziro oyendetsa ndege. Komabe kusamutsidwa kwa ma jets kudakhala kovuta chifukwa cha eni ake kuti azitha kupereka zida zofunika kwambiri zodzitetezera kudera lawo, komanso kuopa kuti Russia ingawone ngati nkhondo ngati ndege ziwuluka kuchokera kumabwalo awo amlengalenga kukamenyana ndi Ukraine.

Pa 26 February, Blinken adalengeza kuti walola $350 miliyoni zothandizira zankhondo zakupha, kuphatikiza "njira zolimbana ndi zida zankhondo ndi ndege, zida zazing'ono ndi zida zosiyanasiyana, zida zankhondo, ndi zida zofananira nazo". Russia idati ma drones aku US adapereka nzeru kwa asitikali aku Ukraine kuti athandizire kuwongolera zombo zake zankhondo ku Black Sea, zomwe US ​​idakana. Pa 27 February, Portugal idalengeza kuti idzatumiza mfuti za Heckler & Koch G3 ndi zida zina zankhondo. Sweden ndi Denmark onse adaganiza zotumiza zida za 5,000 ndi 2,700 zotsutsana ndi akasinja, motero, ku Ukraine. Denmark idaperekanso mbali zoponya 300 zosagwira ntchito za Stinger, zomwe US ​​​​idzathandiza kaye kuti igwire ntchito. Turkey idaperekanso ma drones a TB2.

Boma la Norway, litanena kuti silitumiza zida ku Ukraine koma litumiza zida zina zankhondo monga zipewa ndi zida zodzitetezera, lidalengeza pa 28 February kuti liperekanso zida zothana ndi akasinja zokwana 2,000 M72 LAW ku Ukraine.[16][17][18] Pakusintha kwakukulu kwa mfundo za dziko losalowerera ndale, dziko la Finland lidalengeza kuti litumiza mfuti zokwana 2,500 pamodzi ndi zipolopolo 150,000, zida zankhondo zankhondo 1,500 zowombera limodzi, ndi zida zomenyera nkhondo 70,000, kuphatikiza ma vests, zipewa, ndi zida zankhondo. mankhwala alengezedwa kale.

Akatswiri ena anena kuti kukana kwa mayiko a NATO kutumiza magulu ankhondo ku Ukraine ndi mfundo yosangalatsa.[19][20][21]

Zothandizira anthu[Sinthani | sintha gwero]

Breakdown Fatalities Time period Source
Civilians 2,000+ killed 24 February – 2 March 2022 Ukrainian government
331 killed 24 February – 3 March 2022 United Nations
UAF, NGU, and volunteer forces 1,500 killed 24–28 February 2022 US officials
Russian Armed Forces 498 killed 24 February – 2 March 2022 Russian government
1,500–2,000 killed 24–28 February 2022 US officials

Ntchito zamtendere[Sinthani | sintha gwero]

Pa 28 February, okambirana ku Ukraine ndi ku Russia adayamba kukambirana zokambirana ku Belarus kuti athetse nkhondo ndikuwonetsetsa kuti anthu wamba athawe. Pambuyo pa zokambirana zitatu, mgwirizano wonse sunafikidwe.

Pa Marichi 5, Russia idalengeza kuti kuyimitsa kwachidule kwa maola asanu ndi theka ku Mariupol ndi Volnovakha, kuti atsegule njira zothandizira anthu kuti anthu wamba asamuke. Ukraine idadzudzula asitikali aku Russia chifukwa chophwanya mobwerezabwereza kuletsa mizinda iwiriyi, ngakhale Unduna wa Zachitetezo ku Russia udati kuwomberako kudachokera m'mizinda yonseyi motsutsana ndi Russia. Bungwe la International Committee of the Red Cross linanena kuti zoyesayesa zochotsa anthu wamba zalephera. Patsiku lomwelo, nduna yaikulu ya Israeli, Naftali Bennett, adawulukira ku Moscow ndipo adachita misonkhano ya maola atatu ndi Putin, asanapite ku Germany ndikuchita misonkhano ndi Chancellor waku Germany Olaf Scholz. Bennett analankhula pasadakhale ndi Zelenskyy, yemwe adamupemphapo kuti amuthandize kukhala mkhalapakati. Anagwirizananso ndi US ndi France.[22]

Pa 7 Marichi, ngati njira yothetsa kuwukira, a Kremlin adafuna kusalowerera ndale kwa Ukraine, kuzindikira kulandidwa kwa Crimea ndi Russia mu 2014, ngati gawo la Russia, komanso kuzindikira mayiko odzipatula a Donetsk ndi Luhansk ngati mayiko odziyimira pawokha. Tsiku lomwelo, Russia idalengeza kuti kutha kwakanthawi ku Kyiv, Sumy, ndi mizinda ina iwiri, kuyambira 10:30 Moscow Time (UTC + 3). Adalengezedwa kuti asiya nkhondo kuti alole anthu wamba kutuluka m'mizinda inayi yaku Ukraine. Asilikali aku Russia anali atalengeza za kutsegulidwa kwa makonde angapo othandizira anthu ndikutuluka ku Ukraine..[23][24][25]

Zolemba[Sinthani | sintha gwero]

  1. Herb, Jeremy; Starr, Barbara; Kaufman, Ellie (24 February 2022). "US orders 7,000 more troops to Europe following Russia's invasion of Ukraine". Oren Liebermann and Michael Conte. CNN. Archived from the original on 27 February 2022. Retrieved 27 February 2022. Russia's invasion of its neighbor in Ukraine is the largest conventional military attack that's been seen since World War II, the senior defense official said Thursday outlining United States observations of the unfolding conflict
  2. Karmanau, Yuras; Heintz, Jim; Isachenkov, Vladimir; Litvinova, Dasha (24 February 2022). "Russia presses invasion to outskirts of Ukrainian capital". ABC News. Photograph by Evgeniy Maloletka (AP Photo). Kyiv: American Broadcasting Corporation. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 27 February 2022. Retrieved 26 February 2022. ... [a]mounts to the largest ground war in Europe since World War II.Template:Cbignore
  3. Tsvetkova, Maria; Vasovic, Aleksandar; Zinets, Natalia; Charlish, Alan; Grulovic, Fedja (27 February 2022). "Putin puts nuclear 'deterrence' forces on alert". Reuters. Writing by Robert Birsel and Frank Jack Daniel; Editing by William Mallard, Angus MacSwan and David Clarke. Kyiv: Thomson Corporation. Archived from the original on 27 February 2022. Retrieved 27 February 2022. ... [t]he biggest assault on a European state since World War Two.Template:Cbignore
  4. "Ukraine crisis: Vladimir Putin address fact-checked". BBC News. 22 February 2022. Archived from the original on 23 February 2022. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
  5. Hinton, Alexander (24 February 2022). "Putin's claims that Ukraine is committing genocide are baseless, but not unprecedented". The Conversation. Archived from the original on 26 February 2022. Retrieved 25 February 2022.Template:Cbignore
  6. "Ukrainian president signs decree on general mobilisation of population -Interfax". Reuters. 24 February 2022. Archived from the original on 25 February 2022. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  7. "Zelensky signs decree declaring general mobilization". Interfax-Ukraine. 25 February 2022. Archived from the original on 25 February 2022. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  8. Heintz, Jim; Isachenkov, Vladimir; Karmanau, Yuras; Litvinova, Dasha (27 February 2022). "Putin puts nuclear forces on high alert, escalating tensions". AP News (in English). Retrieved 3 March 2022.
  9. Akbarzai, Sahar (2 March 2022). "1 million refugees have fled Ukraine in a week, UN says". CNN (in English). Retrieved 3 March 2022.
  10. Dawar, Anil (4 April 2008). "Putin warns Nato over expansion". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 13 February 2022. Retrieved 15 February 2022. The Russian president, Vladimir Putin, today repeated his warning that Moscow would view any attempt to expand NATO to its borders as a 'direct threat'.
  11. Chifu, Iulian; Nantoi, Oazu; Sushko, Oleksandr (2009). "Russia–Georgia War of August 2008: Ukrainian Approach" (PDF). The Russian Georgian War: A trilateral cognitive institutional approach of the crisis decision-making process. Bucharest: Editura Curtea Veche. p. 181. ISBN 978-973-1983-19-6. Archived (PDF) from the original on 30 September 2018. Retrieved 21 February 2016. Conceptually, Russia sees Ukraine within the sphere of own 'privileged interests'; in fact, it means a modernized version of Brezhnev's doctrine of 'limited sovereignty', realized after the occupation of Czechoslovakia in 1968.
  12. Wiktor, Szary; Sobczak, Pawel; Emmott, Robin; Sytas, Andrius; Muller, Robert; Dagenborg, Joachim (20 June 2016). Boulton, Ralph (ed.). "In push for equal NATO status, Poland asks for flashpoint troops". Reuters. Brussels, Prague, Vilnius, Trondheim: Thomson Corporation. Archived from the original on 25 January 2022. Retrieved 25 January 2022.
  13. "U.S. Security Assistance to Ukraine". Congressional Research Service. 9 February 2022. Archived from the original on 27 February 2022. Retrieved 26 February 2022.
  14. Mitchell, Ellen (25 February 2022). "Pentagon mulling ways to get more lethal aid to Ukraine". The Hill. Archived from the original on 27 February 2022. Retrieved 26 February 2022.
  15. Gould, Joe; Altman, Howard (25 January 2022). "Pentagon reveals info on $200M military aid to Ukraine, including more Javelins". Defense News. Archived from the original on 27 February 2022. Retrieved 26 February 2022.
  16. "Norway to send weapons to Ukraine, in change of policy". Reuters. 28 February 2022. Archived from the original on 1 March 2022. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
  17. Jarstad, Lena (28 February 2022). "Norge sender våpen til Ukraina" [Norway sends weapons to Ukraine]. NRK (in Norwegian Bokmål). Archived from the original on 1 March 2022. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
  18. "Norge sender våpen til Ukraina" [Norway sends weapons to Ukraine]. Vg.no (in Norwegian Bokmål). 28 February 2022. Archived from the original on 1 March 2022. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
  19. "Appeasing Putin in Ukraine would be disastrous for European security". Atlantic Council. 2022-01-06. Retrieved 2022-03-05.
  20. Lewis, Simon; Melander, Ingrid (2022-03-04). "NATO rejects Ukraine no-fly zone, unhappy Zelenskiy says this means more bombing". Reuters. Retrieved 2022-03-05.
  21. "The west knows the cost of appeasement. We can't rule out any option for stopping Putin | Ian Bond". the Guardian. 2022-02-22. Retrieved 2022-03-05.
  22. Lahav Harkov (6 March 2022). "Bennett concludes meeting with Putin, speaks with Zelensky". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 8 March 2022.
  23. "Key Ukraine City To Attempt Civilian Evacuation Amid Temporary Ceasefire". Reuters. 6 March 2022. Retrieved 7 March 2022 – via NDTV.com.
  24. "Russia declares ceasefire in Ukraine's Kyiv, 3 other cities to allow civilians to evacuate". India Today. 7 March 2022. Retrieved 7 March 2022.
  25. "Russia announces ceasefire in Kyiv, 3 other cities for humanitarian corridors". Hindustan Times. 7 March 2022. Retrieved 7 March 2022.